LNG Introduction

LNG is predominantly Liquefied Methane. Natural Gas turns into Liquefied Natural Gas at -161°C. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. The major advantage is LNG takes up about 1/600th the volume of Natural Gas. This makes LNG cost efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. The density of LNG falls between 430 kg/m3 and 470 kg/m3. LNG is less than half the density of water; therefore, as a liquid, LNG will float if spilled on water. The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, co2, acidic gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty in downstream.

Why LNG?

  • LNG produces less greenhouse gas and toxic emissions than liquid or solid fuels due to the clean complete burning of fuel.
  • The specific gravity of methane at ambient temperature is 0.5‐0.6; therefore it is lighter than air and buoyant.
  • The methan in LNG has a flame temperature of 1,330°C (2,426°F) which means Natural gas burns hotter than other fuels.
  • Flammability range of natural gas is 5% LFL an 15% UFL by volume in air and auto ignition temperature is approximately 540°C (1,000°F) which states that it is safest fuel.

LNG Benefits

  • Supply Assurance: With LNG, one cannot run out of fuel. On‐site storage ensures increased reliability & supply assurance as we provide inventory period according to the location of customer.
  • Economy: LNG reduces not just the fuel cost but also saves money. Equipment running on LNG is virtually maintenance‐free and that means additional savings. Also, LNG prices are relatively stable compared to prices of other fuels derived from crude.
  • Safety: LNG is the safest fossil fuel.
  • Environmental Benefits: LNG is the cleanest burning fossil fuel.
  • Low Maintenance: Clean burning nature of LNG means less maintenance and repairs & a lower equipment replacement cost over the years.

Comparison Table in terms of properties:

Properties Natural Gas LPG Propane FO LDO
Gross Calorific Value (kcal/kg) 12953 11500 11200 10200 10500
Flammability Range (in Air) (%) 5‐15 2‐9 2.2‐9.5 - -
Flame temperature (℃) 1964 1970 1960 1000 1050
Flash Point (℃) ‐188 ‐104 ‐110 66 66
Boiling point (℃) ‐161 ‐27 -42 204 350
Toxic No No No Yes Yes
Impurities No Low Low High High
On Spillage Evaporates and dissipates above in the air Settles near the Ground level Settles near the Ground level Forms a pool on the surface Forms a pool on the surface
Environment Friendly Yes Yes Yes No No